MAHATMA GANDHIJI AMAR RAHE!
His life and Message in his own words
Velandy Manohar, MD,
Distinguished Life Fellow and
Past President Asian American Caucus:
Am. Psychiatric Association
Past President, Indo- American Psychiatric Association
BAPU wanted us to understand that ones inner being about which the least is known is what makes one irresistible and indispensable. Bapu’s theological beliefs and spiritual practices illumined his inner self and generated the insights to conceive and undertake his Sadhana path to self realization which encompassed and under pinned his ground-breaking Satyagraha campaigns. His indomitable inner self was the metaphorical Kurma avatar of Lord Maha Vishnu.
Lord Maha Vishnu assumed the form of the huge turtle in order to help both the Gods and demigods who were feeling despondent and helpless when the Mandhara hill they were using as a churn to get Amrita (Ambrosia) and other treasures of Indra that were submerged in the ocean, sank into the deep waters.
The scripture says that Lord Vishnu enjoined Indra to invite the demigods to cooperate on the arduous task of churning the milky ocean (Kshirabdhi) to gather its treasures using the mountain as a churn and Vasuki as the rope. Lord Maha Vishnu who is the supporter of everything moving and unmoving visible and invisible, that which was, which is and which is yet to come into being supported the mountain as if it were a blade of grass. He is the prime causal power for the restoration of Amrita (ambrosia) to His devotees. Thus, He is the maker of Immortals such as Hanumanji, Jesus, Buddha, Mahavirji, Guru Nanakji and Bapu. His life, actions and words exemplifies and embodies the Vedic attributes of a Mahatma; Manasyekam, Vachasyekam, Karmanyekam Mahatmana. (S. Ramakrishnan - The Sole Hope and Alternative- Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan)
The mightiest Empire the world has ever seen, upon which the sun never set was the heavy crushing weight that was submerging millions of enslaved human beings throughout the world in an unfathomable ocean of tears and blood. Mahatma Gandhiji’s inner spirit took the form of the Kurma Avatar and began to liberate not merely the bodies of the oppressed and enslaved but more importantly lovingly restore their broken spirits with a tender heart free of malice, firm guiding hands and patient tutelage. This tutelage was based on principles that were enshrined in his heart and exemplified in the goals he set for himself and the innovative methods he enunciated to achieve these aspirations throughout his life.
The irresistible power of the awakened inner spirit of Mahatma Gandhiji, his adoption of sarvodaya as the guiding principle of his life’s work which consisted of self less service for the uplift of the masses to protect them from exploitation at every level is analogous to the miraculous actions of another avatar of Lord Maha Vishnu as Krishna. In his sixth year Balakrishna lifted the Govardhan hill with his little finger and offered shelter to the residents of Brindavana to save them from drowning in the torrential rains sent down by a furious Indra. He cleansed the Jamuna River of the poisonous toxins produced by Kaliya a mighty serpent that lived in the Jamuna River and wreaked havoc on humans, animals, birds and vegetation.
SECTION I PRAYERS OF BAPU
Three religious works formed the fountain head of Ambrosia for Bapu. These pristine springs of nectar sustained him through his trials and tribulations and inspired him to scale the steepest cliffs and cross the roughest waters
(Prayer 1 below is an a prime example of his spiritual foundation) The precious waters of these springs he shared with all he served and those who served him. Bapu described the Srimad Ramayana, Srimad Bhagvad Gita and Ashram Bhajan Valli as “those three shields that protect us … I believe, and I want you to believe, that the constant reading of these, with faith, will be a greater source of strength than letters from me, or living with me” When we read these books and recite the holy words and live its import and message we have the best chance of reaching out and touching the heart of the Mahatma.
There were 250 prayers in the original version of the Ashram Bhajan Valli. The hymns included prayers of all traditions, Muslim Buddhist, Jain, Sikh, Christian as well as Hindu traditions from various parts of India.
Before reviewing some of the divinely inspired echoes from within Bapu’s spiritual self I offer these words that describe the Sadhana Path that Bapu had chosen to seek and attain self realization that he shared in the pages of Young India on June 17, 1926. Bapu wrote, “I know the path. It is straight and narrow. It is like the edge of a sword. I rejoice to walk on it. I weep when I slip. Gods’ word is “he who strives never perishes.” I have implicit faith in that promise. Though therefore, from my weakness I fall a thousand times, I will not lose faith. But I will hope that I shall see the Light again when the flesh has been brought under perfect subjugation, as someday it must.” We can now meditate on what touched Bapu’s soul and resonated through the inner recesses of the minds and hearts of millions of his followers.
Prayer 1: Early in the morning I call to mind that being which is felt in the heart. That which is Sat, Chit and Ananda. (That which is Supreme consciousness and bliss eternal.). That which is attained by perfect individuals. That which is the Supreme state.
I am that immaculate Brahman, which is ever notes the states of dream, wakefulness and deep sleep, which is not of the material body, a compound of the elements-earth, water space light and air.
Bapu writes” Formerly I used to shudder to utter this verse thinking the claim was arrogant. But when I saw the meaning more clearly, I perceived at once that it was the very best thought with which to commence the day. It is a solemn declaration that the self within us is not the changeable bodies which require sleep etc., but deep down, we are the Being, the witness pervading the countless bodies.” MKG
Prayer 17: “Let Him whosoever he may be in name, whether Vishnu, Mahadev, Brahma or Indra, Sun or Moon, Lord Buddha or Mahavira - Obeisance be ever made only to him who is free from poisonous effect of desire and anger, who is filled with compassion for all life, and who is purified by a perfectly virtuous life” Thus Bapu lived and his life is a message that illumines our intellects. The Veda Proclaims: “Sat Ekam - bahuda Vipraha Vadanti!” The Truth is one. The wise proclaim it variously.
Prayer 58-59: “Ahinsa, truthfulness, non stealing, purity and self-control, these said Manu, are the common duty of all individuals that form society.”
“Ahinsa, truth, non-stealing, freedom from passion, anger and greed, wishing the wellbeing and the good of all that is alive, these are the duty common to all individuals that form society. “
The invocation to the Vedic Hymn Purusha Sooktam includes these blessings Swastir Maanushebhyaha, Urdhvam jigatu bhesajam, Sham no astu Dwipade, Sham Chatushpade. May humanity be blessed, may constituents of the vegetable kingdom be blessed, may two legged beings be blessed, and may four legged beings be blessed. May peace pervade the three worlds!
One of Bapu’s favorite hymns is Lead Kindly Light, amid the encircling gloom, Lead thou me on! It was entitled Pillar of the Cloud and written by Cardinal John Henry Newman in 1833. It was often sung in a Gujarati Translation called Premal Jyoti. In 1932, Father Verrier Elwin proposed to Bapu that he sing a Christian Hymn at an appointed hour each week, so that others might mentally be in communion with Bapu. This hymn was selected and sung each Friday at Sandhya time 1930 hours (7:30PM) by Bapu’s friends in America, Europe, Africa and India.
“Lead, kindly light, amid the encircling gloom, lead Thou me on!
Thy night is dark, and I am far from home; lead Thou me on!
Keep thou my feet; I do not ask to see
The distant scene; one step enough for me. (1)
I was not ever thus, nor prayed that thou shouldst lead me on:
I loved to choose and see my path; but now lead thou me on!
I loved the garish day, and in spite of fears,
Pride ruled my will. Remember not my past years! (2)
So long thy power hath blessed me, sure it will, will lead me on.
O’er moor and fen, o’er crag and torrent, till the night is gone,
And with the morn those angel faces smile,
Which I have loved long since, and lost awhile! (3)
Meantime, along the narrow rugged path, thyself has trod,
Lead me Savior; lead me home in child like faith,
Home to my God, to rest forever after earthly strife
In the calm light of everlasting life. (4)
“All is Brahman, call That Rama or Rahim
Call That Kanhaiya or Mahadeva, Parashvanath or Brahma.
Pots are different, but as of the earth, they are one,
Even so we make imaginary differentiations;
In essence, Truth is one and indivisible (Sat Ekam)
He who is restraint incarnate is Rama
He who is mercy incarnate is Rahim
He who can put an end to the binding effect of work,
By renouncing the fruit thereof is Kanhaiya
He who attains Nirvana by austerities (tapasya) is Mahadeva,
He who touches that which is real is Parashvanath
He who knows himself to be that is Brahman (Tat Tvam Asi)
Thus says Anandghan, I am the Spirit, not the body, and
I am still.
Prayer 173; Bapu selected this Muslim hymn to be sung at fixed day each week during prayers. “We have been singing it from our days in South Africa. It was introduced there by a pure hearted Muslim youth. That youth then passed away, so that for us this song has more than its literal meaning. The song was so dear to that youth, that when it came to the line, “Nazir remember the day of death,’ he used to substitute his name, Hasan, for Nazir’s” MKG
“Life in this world called beautiful garden
Is only for a short while;
You will enjoy the spectacle for only a few days.
O traveler, prepare for the march;
Residence on earth is short.
When the great Hakim Lukman was asked,
“How long will you live?”
Rubbing his hands in despair he replied,
“only a few days.”
After the burial the angel of death said in the grave,
“You will sleep here only a few days.”
O friends, you and I will have to separate in a few days.
O tyrants, why do you oppress innocent people?
Your days are numbered.
Nazir (Hasan) says, Remember the day of death
You cannot rely upon life but for a short while”
The last three stanzas of the Isavasya Upanishad, a pre-eminent source of spiritual wisdom that Bapu turned too often elucidate the message in the preceding hymn.
Verse 16: O Sun of refulgent glory, He who is that Purusa with you, he am I.
Verse 17: May my breath merge into the Immortal spirit of the wind, and then may my body be reduced to ashes. Om O Intellect remember what has been done, remember what has been done, remember!
Verse 18: O Spirit within Fire, Lead us on to prosperity along the auspicious path. Knowing, all our deeds O God, keep us away from deceitful sin! We shall offer unto thee our obeisance, again and again.
Verses 6 and 7 elucidate the relationships between each of us to the other and to God. These provide the foundational context for the verses above.
Verse 6: If one sees all living entities even as his own self, and his elf as being in all other beings, namely feeling the joys and sorrows of others as his own, and sees the same Universal self in all beings, then there is no need for protecting oneself against others.
Verse 7: When a man comes to know and understand that all beings are indeed the all pervading Spirit, then he realizes the oneness of all, thus his illusions are removed and grief will be experienced no more.
Guru Nanakji realized this Truth and sang thus:
O God ever since I have had the companionship of the good.
The distinction between mine and Thine has disappeared.
I deem no one as enemy or stranger.
I am on friendly terms with everyone.
From the good I have learned to consider as good
Whatever comes from God.
Nanak takes delight in finding that God resides in all.
Kabir Dasji, whose spiritual wisdom and exquisite compositions inspired all sections of society. After his death both Hindus and Muslims claimed his remains. When they went to claim his body to perform the last rites they found not his body but a collection of flowers in his shroud. Thus Kabir dasji answered the question whether he was Muslim or Hindu at the time of his death and to whom he belonged.
Prayer 117: Open thy face, thou wilt see thy beloved.
He is in everyone, therefore say nothing bitter about any one.
Do not brag about your riches or youth;
This parcel made of the five elements will play false to thee one day
Light up thy dark heart and do not move from thy purpose
Wake up in this temple, for thou hast got the priceless treasure
Thy Lord in your heart.
Kabir Das ji says let there be rejoicing,
for Gods voice is to be heard within.
Prayer 48: This prayer elucidates the origins of the of the principles that support Satyagraha (Being steadfast in the Truth) as method of resisting oppressive controls on thoughts words and deeds through non-cooperation and civil disobedience in the most vigorous manner without resorting to violence without malice towards or fear of the oppressors.
Soul force is superior even to science,
For one man having soul force
Will shake one hundred learned men.
When one has the force, he is ready to go a teacher
He serves him, He then becomes fit to sit near him,
He ponders over what he has heard; he becomes wise,
He does his duty, he has the experience.
The earth keeps its place through that force,
The heavens retain their place through it,
The mountains, the Gods, mankind, the brute creatures
Birds, grass and plants, game, insects, moths, ants,
All life is sustained by that force.
Therefore, cultivate that force.
On Oct. 3, 1936 Bapu wrote in the Harijan, “I have no shadow of doubt that any man or woman can achieve what I have, if he or she would make the same effort and cultivate the same hope and faith.
In Sept. 1947: Bapu spoke these prophetic words, “I fancy I know the art of living and dying non-violently. But I have yet to demonstrate it by one perfect act.”
Earlier in the summer of 1947, two statements of Bapu elucidate his thinking about how he would assess his own commitment to Truth and Ahinsa in the final moments of his life.
1. I believe in the message of truth delivered by all the religious teachers of the world. And it is my constant prayer that I may never have a feeling of anger against my transducers, that even if I fall a victim to an assassin’s bullet, I may deliver up my soul with the remembrance of God upon my lips. I shall be content to be written down as an impostor if my lips utter a word of anger or abuse against my assailant at the last moment.
2. Have I that non violence of the brave in me? My death alone will show that. If someone killed me and I died with a prayer on my lips, and Gods remembrance and consciousness of his living presence in the sanctuary of his heart, then alone would I be said to have had the non violence of brave. Prayer speech June 16, 1947.
SECTION II – IDEAS OF BAPU ON SECULAR MATTERS
In this section I will share with the readers capsules on various aspects of social and economic life in India that are in Bapu’s own words.
A. Message of the Charkha
YOUNG INDIA 8.12.1921
“I claim the honor of being able to solve the problem of economic distress in the most natural, simple, inexpensive and business like manner. It is the symbol of a nations prosperity and therefore of freedom. It is the symbol not of a commercial war but of commercial peace.
YOUNG INDIA 17.9.1925
The message of the spinning wheel is much wider than its circumference. Its message is one of simplicity, service of mankind, living ones life so as not to hurt others, creating an indissoluble bond between the rich and the poor, capital and labor, the prince and the peasant. That larger message is naturally for all.
B. ECONOMICS AND BREAD LABOR.
FROM YERVADA MANDIR: The law, that to live must work, first came to me upon reading Tolstoy’s work on bread labor. In my view, the same principle has been set forth in the third chapter of the Gita, where we are taught by Lord Sri Krishna that he who eats without offering the sacrifice first to God eats stolen food. Sacrifice here can only mean bread labor.
YOUNG INDIA, 15.11.1928
According to me the economic constitution of India and, for that matter of the world should be such that no one under that should suffer from want of food and clothing. In other words, everybody should be able to get sufficient work to enable everyone to make both ends meet.
And this ideal can be universally realized only if the means of production of essential necessities of life remain in the control of the masses. These should be available freely to all as Gods air and water are or ought to be; they should not be made a vehicle of traffic for the exploitation of others. This monopolization by any country, nation or group of persons would be unjust. The neglect of this simple principle is the cause of destitution that we witness today not only in this unhappy land but other parts of the world too.
Swadeshi is that spirit in us which restricts us to the use and service of our immediate surroundings to the exclusion of the more remote. Thus, as for, religion, in order to satisfy the requirements of this definition, I must restrict myself to my ancestral religion. That is, the use of my immediate religious surrounding. If I find it defective, I should serve it by purging it of its defects.
In the domain of politics, I should make use of indigenous institutions and serve them by curing them of their proved defects. In that of economics, I should use only things that are produced by my immediate neighbors and serve those industries by making them efficient and complete where they might be found wanting. It is suggested that such Swadeshi to practice will lead to the millennium...
If we follow the Swadeshi doctrine, it would be your duty and mine to find our neighbors who can supply our wants and to teach them to supply them where they do not know how to proceed, assuming that there are neighbors who are in want of healthy occupation. Then every village of India will almost be a self-supporting and self contained unit, exchanging only such necessary commodities with other villages as are not locally available.
Mahatma Gandhiji writes; Satyagraha is different from passive resistance in three essentials: Satyagraha is a weapon of the strong; it admits of no violence in thought, word or deed under any circumstance whatever; and it ever insists on upholding the truth.
In the application of Satyagraha, I discovered, in the earliest stages, that pursuit of Truth did not admit of violence being inflicted on ones opponent, but that he must be weaned from error by patience and sympathy. For, what appears to be truth to one may be error to the other. And patience means self suffering. So the doctrine came to mean vindication of the Truth, not by infliction of suffering on the opponent, but of oneself.
Satyagraha and its offshoots, non-cooperation and civil resistance are nothing but new names for the law of suffering. When Satyam is combined with Ahinsa, you can bring the world to your feet. Satyagraha in its essence is the introduction of truth and gentleness in the political, i.e., national life. Satyagraha to be genuine must be considered and may be offered if justified against parents, ones own spouse and children, against rulers, against fellow citizens, even against the whole world.
Mahatma Gandhiji’s precepts, social experiments and political campaigns enshrine, and exemplify the set of instructions that constitute the Guru Sishya anushasanam. This earliest known commencement address delivered at the conclusion of students course study is recorded in the Siksha Valli of the Taittriya Upanishad.( I,xi,1)The first two commandments to the graduating class are 1. Proclaim the Truth and 2. Practice Virtue. It goes on to commend the following noble precepts to the pupils thus; be thou the one who reverences your mother, your father, teacher and guest as divine beings. Can there be a better foundation Satyagraha, Sarvodaya and Ahinsa?
Mahatma Gandhiji writes, “My conception of freedom is no narrow conception. It is co-extensive with freedom of man in all his majesty. (Harijan, 7.6.1942
The word Swaraj is a sacred word, a Vedic word, meaning self rule and self-restraint, and not freedom from all restraint which independence often means.
Swaraj of a people means the sum total of Swaraj of individuals. And such Swaraj comes only from performance by individuals of their duty as citizens. In it no one thinks about his rights but only of their responsibilities. They come by their rights when they are needed for the better performance of their duties. I must remind you when you demand Swaraj for your self make sure you are prepared to demand Swaraj for your neighbor.
YOUNG INDIA, 20.7.1931
Democracy disciplined and enlightened by individuals exercising self-restraint and self-control is the finest thing in the world. A democracy that is prejudiced, filled with the ignorant and superstitious, will land itself in chaos.
YOUNG INDIA 10.9.1931
“I shall work for an India in which the poorest shall feel it is their country, in whose making they have an effective voice; an India in which there shall be no high class and low class of people; an India in which all communities live in perfect harmony. There can be no room in India for the curse of Untouchability, or the curse of the intoxicating drugs and drinks. Women shall enjoy the same rights as men.
Since we shall be at peace with all the rest of the world, neither exploiting nor being exploited, we should have the smallest army imaginable. All interests not in conflict with the interests of ordinary citizens will be scrupulously respected whether foreign or indigenous. Personally I hate the distinction between foreign and indigenous. This is India of my dreams. I shall be satisfied by nothing else.”
Sarvodaya is the political philosophy invented by Gandhiji which seeks the uplift of all. It was the title of his translation of John Ruskin’s classic “Unto this Last”. The three strategies to achieve the goals of Sarvodaya are:
1. Swadeshi [asserting economic self-reliance resistance to economic domination], (C above)
2. Satyagraha: holding on firmly to the Truth Gandhiji emphasized the unbreakable link between means and ends Gandhi wrote: “They say, 'means are, after all, means'. I would say, 'means are, after all, everything'. As the means so the end...](D above)
3. Swaraj [political and personal self-rule]. (E above)
Mahatma Gandhi cam and stood at the door of India’s destitute millions, clad as one of themselves, speaking to them in their own language…who else so unreservedly accepted the vast masses of the Indian people as his flesh and blood…Truth awakened Truth.
Whatever Gandhi was, he was like no other man of his age. Perhaps he will not succeed, perhaps he will fail as Buddha did, as the Christ failed to wean men from their inequities but he will always be remembered as one who made his life a lesson for all the ages to come.”
Pearl S. Buck “He was right, he knew he was right. The man who killed him knew he was right. However the follies of the violent continue they but prove that Gandhi was right. “Resist to the very end, he said but without violence. Of violence the world is sick. Oh, India dare to be worthy of your Gandhi.”
Martin Luther King, Jr., “Gandhi was probably the first person in history to lift the love ethic of Jesus above mere interaction between individuals to a powerful and effective social force on a large scale. The intellectual and moral satisfaction I failed to gain from the utilitarianism of Bentham and Mill, the revolutionary methods of Marx and Lenin, the social contract theory of Hobbes, the back to nature optimism of Rousseau, and the superman philosophy of Nietzsche, I found the non-violent resistance philosophy of Gandhi.”
Ho Chi Minh: “I and others may be revolutionaries, but we are disciples of Mahatma Gandhi, nothing more nothing less.”
Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan: (Badshah Khan- Also known as the Frontier Gandhi)
What was Gandhiji’s greatest contribution? First of all, he inculcated in Indians courage in the place of cowardice, the courage to demand freedom. The biggest thing he did, however, not only in India, for the whole world, was to teach the lesson of non-violence. It was through him that FRREEDOM CAME. Gandhiji’s non violence was not for the weak but for the brave. Whatever evil happened was not because of non-violence, but because the people had not fully imbibed or assimilated it. I can only say that India’s freedom came through because of Gandhiji’s method. No doubt a favorable climate for the transfer of power developed, but without Gandhiji’s who could have been ready to take advantage of that change of climate.
If people criticize Gandhiji, or under rate him let them. That is the way of the world. That has been the lot of all great people He did so much for the country and the [people; in their service he bore so much hardship, sorrow and suffering. But his place is assured and secure. We cannot enhance his status through praise nor can we lower him in the estimation of the world through criticism. He was and will be what he has always been- great.
How best can we honor such a man? The people must be provided with the basic necessities of life which Gandhiji wanted them to have. If we take Gandhiji’s philosophy to the villager, he may well accost us saying,
“I am hungry, feed me. I am naked, clothe me. My children are without a school. Give them one. I am ill and I have neither doctor nor medicine. Look after me.”
MY MISSION – MAHATMA GANDHIJI
YOUNG INDIA 4.4.1929
My mission is not merely the brotherhood of Indian humanity. My mission is not merely freedom of India, though today it undoubtedly engrosses practically whole of my life and whole of my time. But, through realization of freedom of India, I hope to realize and carry on the mission of brotherhood of man.
My patriotism is not an exclusive thing. It is all embracing and I should reject that patriotism which sought to mount on the distress or exploitation of other nationalities. The conception of my patriotism is nothing if it is not always, in every case without exception, consistent with the broadest good of humanity at large
Not only that, but my religion and my patriotism derived from my religion embrace my life. I want to realize brotherhood and identity not merely with beings called human, but I want to realize identity with all life, even with such things as crawl upon the earth because we claim to be descent from the same God, and that being so, all life in whatever forms it appears is essentially one.
I HAVE THAT IMPLICIT FAITH IN MY MISSION, IF IT SUCCEEDS- AS IT WILL SUCCEED, IT IS BOUND TO SUCCEED-HISTORY WILL RECORD IT AS A MOVEMENT DESIGNED TO KNIT ALL PEOPLE IN THE WORLD TOGETHER, NOT AS HOSTILE TO ONE ANOTHER BUT AS ESSENTIAL PARTS OF THE WHOLE.
Will Durant, “Not since Buddha has India reverenced any man. Not since St. Francis of Assisi has any life known in history been so marked by gentleness, disinterestedness, simplicity of soul and forgiveness of enemies. We have witnessed the astonishing phenomenon of a revolution lead by a saint.”
Louis Fischer, “India has impoverished itself by exporting her finest treasures. It gave Birth to Buddha; now hundreds of millions follow him outside India and only a handful inside. India’s earth and water nurtured Gandhiji. How many Gandhians can be counted in his native country? How much influence do those Gandhians exercise? Is Gandhiji to become a lost Mahatma? Is the prophet of (Swarajya, Swadeshi, Sarvodaya and Satyagraha and Ahinsa) to be without honor in his own home land?
“May the wicked become virtuous, May the Virtuous attain Tranquility. May the tranquil be freed from bonds. May the liberated help the shackled to go free. May peace pervade the three worlds.”
I offer my obeisance and deep gratitude to Bapu as a Jagad Guru (World Teacher) not only lit the lamp of wisdom and piety but through his tapasya in cause of freedom provided the oil for the lamp of learning to burn brightly not only at Rajghat in India but in the hearts of the never ending streams of millions of devotees who find inspiration in his life and message to the end of time.
Tasmad Acharya paryantaam
Vande Guru Paramparaam”
(I prostrate and offer salutations to the progression of teachers beginning auspiciously with Lord Sadashiva in the very beginning, followed by Srimad Adi Sankaracharya in the middle and extending as far into the present as my teacher.)
We began this essay with a brief glimpse of the Kurma avatar of Maha Vishnu. This prayer is to Him.
“He is praised as the original tortoise. the supporter of everything, the holder of the hill as if it were a light blade of grass. He is the maker of Immortals. The prime causal power for the restoration of Amrita to them. Let us pray to Him.”
“May the Lord, destroyer of sin, the presiding Deity of all sacrifice, be satisfied, for, when He is contented, the whole world is contented, when He is pleased the universe is pleased.”
Velandy Manohar, MD,
Distinguished Life Fellow and
Past President Asian American Caucus:
Am. Psychiatric Association
Past President, Indo- American Psychiatric Association